Medij. istraž. (god. 13, br. 1) 2007. (69-85)
IZVORNI ZNANSTVENI RAD
Primljeno: veljača 2007.
Media Literacy as Compared to Other Elements of the Information Literacy Model
Violeta Vidaček Hainš1
The ever-increasing exposure of pre-school children to various media types
needs to be matched by an appropriate level of media literacy development.
Media literacy is a part of information literacy, whose other constituent parts
are the basic, technology and library literacy.
In order to study the development of various elements within the information
literacy model, as well as their interdependence, three surveys were designed
intended for pre-school teachers, six-year old pre-school children in kindergartens
and their parents. These three groups of respondents were selected so as to
determine the correspondence and potential overlap between estimations obtained
from those three groups.
The results revealed that six-year old children on average tend to be exposed
to information via various media types, both at home and in kindergarten, for
as much as 25 hours a week. The most frequently used source of information
is television, followed by video, picture books, the computer and so on. A
positive correlation between the level of media literacy and technology literacy
development among pre-school children was also confirmed. Furthermore,
in most pre-school children an initial stage of library literacy was revealed.
The level of complexity of the investigation process as a constituent
part of library literacy therefore depends on the availability
of various media types (television, the computer etc.) and exposure to them.
When the assessment of basic literacy development is concerned, our results
indicate that letter recognition and the reading skill in six-year old children,
being constituent parts of basic literacy, are not connected with
the level of information literacy development at that particular age. Additionally,
the results emphasize the significance of the social component, that is, the
role played by adults reading stories and other texts to children.
To conclude, owing to children’s high exposure to various media both
at home and in pre-school institutions, it is essential to make a systematic
effort toward monitoring and improving the educational content in pre-school
curricula. This calls for additional training of parents aimed at facilitating
the selection of quality content. Another aspect of such training to be provided
through expert advice should focus on limiting the media exposure time
during which children acquire information and obtain information literacy at
Key words:media types, media literacy, information literacy
information and knowledge based society challenges the individual with
tasks requiring the development and achievement of a level of competence,
resourcefulness, agility, fluency and skilfulness. Dependant upon how skilful
and resourceful an individual is in any particular respect, he or she is judged
as either literate or illiterate. Literacy once implied an ability to read
and write, however, this now includes the additional skills of speaking and
listening, counting and calculating, perceiving and drawing. The original significance
of the term is now referred to as basic literacy. In this profusion of different
types of literacy (business literacy, health literacy, computer literacy,
etc.) information literacy is conspicuous as a prerequisite for other
forms of literacy. Information literacy is structurally incorporated as
one of the levels of various types of literacy. Some authors (Tyner, 1998,
Cope & Kalantzis, 1999, Kalantzis & Pandian, 2001) discuss the term multiliteracies to
define all the literacies needed in a “digital world” related to
communication and information, “notably media literacy, computer
literacy, visual literacy, information literacy, network literacy and technology…” (Tyner,
1998:60). Although there are many different models of information literacy,
the results will be partially interpreted according to Ferguson’s model
Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL, 2006) defines information literacy as “the
ability to know when there is a need for information, and to be able to identify,
locate, evaluate and effectively use that information for the issue or problem
at hand”. Basic components of Ferguson’s information literacy model
are: basic literacy (already mentioned/defined), library literacy, media literacy,
technology literacy and visual literacy.
the differences between different forms of material (i.e. between fiction
and non-fiction), understanding the Dewey Decimal System as a useful, logical
system of hierarchical organization, the use of indexes and library catalogues
are all skills indicating the level of library literacy strongly positively
correlated to student achievement (Ferguson, 2005:11).
Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL, 2006) defines media literacy as “the
ability to decode, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety
of forms”. According to Ferguson (Ferguson, 2005:12), media literacy
includes understanding of the many different forms of media (newspapers,
magazines, radio, television, the Internet…) and the purposes for
which they can be used.
Report of the National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy” (Aufderheide & Firestone,
1993:6) media literacy is defined as “the ability of a citizen to access,
analyze, and produce information for specific outcomes”. The same papers
state that “to some, analyzing was better expressed as decoding or evaluating,
and producing was better explained as encoding or providing alternative expression” (Aufderheide & Firestone,
1993:6-7). Finally, Aufderheide (Aufderheide & Firestone, 1993:9) defines
a media literate person as one who “can decode, evaluate, analyze
and produce both print and electronic media”. Furthermore, it is emphasized
that the fundamental objective of media literacy is “critical autonomy
in relationship to all media”.
(Masterman, 1990: 128-129) emphasizes the skills of “selection, exploiting
the ambiguity of visual evidence, combining image and linguistic text, suppressing
the existence or effect of camera, crew and reporter, set-ups, film and sound
editing, interpretative frameworks, visual coding, narrative” – subjects
that could form the basis of media literacy (educational) programmes.
author (Masterman, 1990: 28) argues for non-hierarchical teaching modes within
media education, he argues they should be: “as lively, democratic, group-focused
and action-oriented as the teacher can make it” with a key objective
to develop reflection and critical thinking: “to develop approaches in
which student confidence can be nurtured through group dialogue, and in
which students can make their own judgements, develop the ability to analyse
those judgements, and so take on responsibility for their own learning and
Tyner “media literacy attempts consolidate strands from the communication
literacies that correspond with convergence of text, sound and image,
including the moving image. It has been associated with the ability to make
sense of all media and genre, from the more classic educational fare to popular
culture” (Tyner, 1998:113).
of media-literacy instruction has been emphasized by Hobbs and Frost (Hobbs & Frost,
2003) in their study of the impact upon students’ comprehension,
writing and message analysis skills. Among their its other findings, their
study has determined that students who received media-literacy instruction
(as compared to the control group):
- showed “improvement in the ability to identify main ideas – demonstrated
improvement in reading comprehension skills”
- produced “longer paragraphs and fewer spelling errors” which “are
signs of continuing development in writing skills”
- “were able to describe specific techniques used by authors of different
media formats to attract and hold audience attention”
- “were more likely to recognize the complex blurring of information,
entertainment, and economics that are present in contemporary non-fiction
- and “appeared to have a more nuanced understanding of interpreting
textual evidence in different media formats to identify an author’s
multiple purposes and intended target audiences” (Hobbs & Frost,
literacy is defined as “the ability to use media, such as the Internet,
to effectively access and communicate information” (NFIL, 2006). Together
with technology literacy, (a related term) – computer literacy – is
used as “the ability to use a computer and its software to accomplish
practical tasks” NFIL, 2006) which is not isolated in the Ferguson model
but rather presents it as a component of technology literacy (Ferguson,
2006:13). The National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL, 2006) defines visual
literacy as “the ability, through knowledge of the basic visual
elements, to understand the meaning and components of the image.” Ferguson
emphasizes that visual literacy is a link between media and technology literacy,
thereby teaching students to think critically about visual data (Ferguson,
we are witnessing a flood of numerous media used for entertainment, rather
than as a constructive means of organizing and defining free time (Janković,
1973:7, Previšić, 2000:405) as time spent outside professional
engagement, i.e. the overall time and activity not defined as professional
duty. Children and young people are most likely to be exposed to media, due
to their lack of critical ability accompanied by a surplus of free time.
Ilišin has researched into youth behaviour and concluded that the favourite
activity of children and young people is watching television, especially motion
pictures (Ilišin, 2000:422). Additionally, Comstok (Comstok, 1997:739)
points out that “television does play a key role, although it should
be considered within the context of other media and innovations”.
The same author suggests that “while observing and researching media
one should consider the following five elements: viewers’ reaction, their
individual experience, cognitive aims, school progress and behavioural changes” (Comstok,
to Anderson et al. (Anderson et al., 2001:2) various theories concerning
media and their impact on children “fall into two broad classes: those
that emphasise the content presented and those that focus on the amount of
exposure to the medium irrespective of its content. (…)” Within
each of these broad categories, some theories propose “effects” of
television on viewers; others stress the viewers’ active role in selecting
and using media for particular purposes.” Projects, for example, Competent
Children, the aim of which is “ to describe and analyse variations and
changes over time in children’s and young people’s cognitive,
social, communicative and problem-solving competencies” (NZCER, 2006),
analyze relationships between forms of literacy and exposure to different media.
The results have shown that “television watching has more long-term association
with children’s literacy and mathematics than with their social skills
or dispositions, such as perseverance” (Wylie, 2001:5). The Kaiser
Family Foundation’s survey Kids & Media @ the New Millennium, shows
that 70% of children aged 2 to 18 have a radio in their room, 64% of which
have a tape player, whereas 53% have a TV (Roberts, 1999:13). The results of
this survey also show that children of that age are daily exposed to the said
media for an average of 6:32 hours, the distribution of which shows television
as leading with 2:45 hours, followed by CDs and tapes with 0:48 hours, print
media with 0:44 hours, whereas the computer had the least exposure with 0:21
hours (Roberts, 1999:20). Recent research additionally confirms the dominance
of TV as a medium (Gigli, 2004:4). The same report emphasizes a lack of quality
and control, and lists various effects of the impact of mass media on children
and young people (Gigli, 2004:7-8).
points out: “as far as technology is concerned, we are exactly halfway
to the goal: new technologies offer amazing possibilities, yet we have to take
them as a means, not as an end” (Gardner, 2005:130). In summary, the
main aim of human resources (parents, educators, teachers and institutions)
whilst using technology to achieve goals related to upbringing and education,
is to contribute to a healthy growth and development of children.
of skills and competencies related to technology and media literacy is closely
linked with computer skills as its inherent part. Even research conducted in
the early nineties (Podmore, 1991:104, Williams & Ogletree, 1992:139) showed
that children started using a computer for games and learning as early as at
their preschool age, whereas nowadays the computer has a vast impact on their
play, learning and socialization process (Essa, 2004:379; Donker & Reitsma,
library literacy skills presupposes a level of understanding technology,
i.e. being skilled and competent in the structure of technology literacy with
children at their preschool age (Silverman, 1996:5; Bell & Clark, 1999).
the development of basic literacy (reading and writing), teachers use modern
media to aid the development of basic reading and writing skills, particularly
computers (Klerfelt, 2007:338; Pierre et al., 2005:957; Silverman, 1996:5)
or television (Wright et al., 2001:1356). At this level of psychological and
physical development it is necessary to provide good material to stimulate
a child’s cognitive development (Duncan, 2003:1471). In addition, socialization
agents (parents, preschool teachers and peers), undertake a significant role
in the process of learning and acquiring information at that age (Fabes et
al., 2001:915; Mostov et al., 2002:1777; Hay et al., 2004:105). Lepičnik
Vodopivec (Lepičnik Vodopivec, 2004: 114) especially emphasizes the responsibility
and role of adults (parents and educators) in the process of developing media
consciousness in pre-school children.
Objectives of research
objective of this research is to determine the level of information literacy
development among preschool children and establish the interrelation between
its constituent elements. Particular elements have been analyzed in view of
a specific level of media literacy development.
objectives are related to the determination of quantitative (frequency
of particular media usage) and qualitative (active use and awareness of benefits
provided by a particular media) indicators of information literacy levels.
with the stated research objectives, the following hypotheses have been defined:
- Media literacy development generally impacts upon the information literacy
of preschool children;
- It is possible to determine the interconnection between specific elements
of technology literacy, library literacy and basic literacy in view
of the level of media literacy development within the information literacy
was conducted on 78 children, attending regular programs of preschool
education groups in a Varaždin kindergarden. The children were aged between
5.5 and 6.5 years of which. 31 were boys (39.24%) and 48 girls (60.76%).
the method was applied to one of each child’s parents (79 in total).
Evaluations made by preschool teachers were also collected (13 in total). An
additional survey was conducted among the parents and children in order
to compare the acquired data.
was conducted during the winter and spring of 2006. Before testing, written
consent was obtained from the parents confirming their agreement for the children
to participate in this research. This was necessary to assure the childrens’ rights
would not be violated. Additionally, upon inspection of the completed
questionnaires, the kindergardten authorities granted their permission for
this research to be conducted.
questionnaires, designed for the purpose of gathering data, were given to the
parents (R), the children (D) and to the preschool teachers (O), respectively.
Certain questions appeared in all three questionnaires, in order for results
to be subsequently compared.
were constructed as likert scales. Respondents were instructed to rank, from
a scale consisting of five degrees, which one they considered best described
their opinions and attitudes, down to the option which least described them.
In order to explain the media-related terms to children, graphic symbols were
used for each term included in the likert scales. The children were individually
tested by their preschool teachers. There were several questions which required
the respondents to circle one of the provided answers (closed questions), others
required them to answer in an allocated blank space (open questions). Upon
completion, open questions were encoded in accordance with a given key.
and quantitative indicators of levels of development of specific elements
of information literacy have been used as dependent variables, i.e. objects
of measurement. Accordingly, the average time of a specific medium consumption,
as expressed in minutes per week, was taken as a quantitative indicator, whereas
the accuracy of the childrens’ open replies to the question requiring
them to define the difference between radio and television was taken as a qualitative
indicator of the same parameter. Moreover, as a quantitative indicator
of technology literacy, the number of children having access to a computer
at home or preschool institution was taken, whereas the accuracy in identifying
particular parts of the computer and defining the purpose of using it were
taken as a qualitative indicator. Additionally, the frequency of their visits
to a children’s library was taken as a qualitative indicator of library
literacy, whereas their definitions of the library (in an open-type questionnaire)
as well as naming basic features pertaining to referencing picture books
and books (publishers, authors, titles…) were taken as qualitative indicators.
Basic literacy was estimated by means of replies given by parents and preschool
teachers regarding the evaluation of acquired pre-reading skills.
Estimating the level of media literacy
of media literacy has been estimated by means of both quantitative and qualitative
methods. In the first case, the overall average time children spend at home
using various media types (broadcast, print, on-line) as sources of information
was analysed. Figure 1 ranks the use-ratio of particular media in minutes per
week Based on their parents’ statements, it is evident that children
watch television predominantly (M=445.21 minutes per week, sd=350.49),
followed by video (M=333.92 minutes per week, sd=282.99), picture books/books
(M=225.71 minutes per week, sd=163.75), a computer (M=207.86 minutes per week,
sd=240.400), children’s magazines (M=128.57 minutes per week, sd=140.99),
audio/CD (M=123.57 minutes per week, sd=152.79), and finally, radio (M=48.93
minutes per week, sd=104.21). On the basis of this data, it was concluded that
children spend approximately 25 hours per week gathering information via media
at home (Kirinić et al., 2006:50).
Figure 1: The average time spent using sources of information at home in minutes
per week (data source: assessment of parents)
the use frequency of any particular medium, a qualitative estimation method
of familiarity with media as an element of information literacy has been used.
In this manner, an estimation of accurate distinction between particular media
has been conducted. Other than providing an insight into general knowledge,
it is also indicative of logical verbal thinking. Children were asked whether
they were able to distinguish clearly between radio and television. On the
level of logical abstract thinking, 69 examined children of preschool age (88.5%)
were able to accurately identify criteria of differentiation between particular
media, the most frequent answer being that “radio is what you listen
to, while television is what you watch”. Figure 2 is a graphic representation
of these results.
Estimating the level of media literacy development as an element of technology
data has shown that nearly 80% of preschool children had access to a computer
at home. This fact can be used as an indirect quantitative indicator of familiarity
with the computer as a contemporary medium. However, apart from this quantitative
indicator, qualitative methods of estimation were used to ascertain whether
the children truly knew how to use a computer. Their teacher recorded correct
answers whilst particular computer parts were named. These results were compared
with their parents’ estimates and have shown that children had achieved
a different level of demonstrating media and technology literacy from that
demonstrated by their parents. Thus, children who used CDs more frequently
were more likely to identify the mouse accurately than those who did not use
the computer as a medium (r=0.23, p<0.05), whereas according to their parents’ estimation,
that correlation was not statistically significant (r=-0.11, p>0.05).
Figure 2: Accurate definition of criteria for media type distinction (radio
measure, that of the children’s self-evaluation, indicated a favourable
relationship between media and computer literacy. It was found that children
who more frequently used CDs as a medium believed themselves to be more adept
at using a computer compared to those children who used CDs less frequently
of these results necessitate consideration of the limitations caused by relatively
few, yet statistically significant correlations. Additionally, these results
confirm the positive connection between familiarity with hardware as a tool
for technology literacy (assessed by testing the accurate identification of
computer parts) and the awareness of the purpose of using media in the area
of media literacy. The elements of the purpose of using media are integrated
within questions dealing with whether the children knew what the computer as
a contemporary medium is used for – obtained answers included using
the computer for study, games, searching for information on the Internet, etc. – and
whether they understood the advantages of the computer, such as speed, accuracy,
etc. According to the Ferguson model (Ferguson, 2005:14), media literacy
and technology literacy are also linked through their common element,
visual literacy. This is corroborated in (Tyner, 1998:93) “in the
United States the term media literacy is often used interchangeably with
information literacy and visual literacy, and many of their aims are inseparable”.
Estimating the level of media literacy development as an element of global
of library literacy development was estimated on the basis of the childrens’ ability
to state what was written on front pages of picture books, irrespective
of their understanding as to the purpose of a library. The results indicated
that preschool children already display a fairly developed library literacy.
Most children were already aware that the front page of a picture book contains
the author’s name and the book title (46.2%), as many as 15.4% of
the children were aware that the front page contains both of these pieces of
data, whereas 7.7% of them were also able to state other elements, such as “picture
book number” (ISBN), “production” (publisher), etc. Approximately
30.8% of the children were not able to provide a correct answer to this question.
entry level of library literacy with preschool children is confirmed by
the fact that the children were able to identify the purpose of a library.
78.2% of the children were able to answer correctly (e.g. “so you can
borrow stories”, “to take a book and return it for someone
else to read”, “so you can borrow books and be smart”, etc.).
are interesting to interpret in the context of frequency and duration
of using media as sources of information, as well as that of the level of media
and library literacy development. No statistically significant correlation
has been established (r<0.20, p>0.05) between the frequency of using
different media (video, television, magazines, radio, the computer, picture
books, children’s magazines, etc.) and the level of library literacy
as estimated on the basis of correct answers given by the children regarding
the data stated on the front pages of publications (the question of whether
they knew what was written on front pages of picture books – answers
including the author, the title and even the publisher were considered as correct).
No statistically significant correlation has been established between
the frequency of using the above mentioned media and the level of library literacy
as estimated on the basis of correct answers to the question of whether they
knew the purpose of a library, or to the question of how to find out what the
weather would be for the next day, for example (r<0.20, p>0.05).
possibly explained due to, at preschool age, information being mainly transferred
through direct contacts in social interaction with peers, elder siblings, parents,
preschool teachers etc., rather than by means of media (Vidaček-Hainš at
Estimating the level of media literacy development as
compared to the research
process as an element of library literacy
the level of information literacy development, a strong emphasis was placed
upon library literacy and especially the research process within that type
of literacy. The idea was to ascertain how well preschool children are able
to identify the suitability of different types of media to search for information.
They were asked how they would find out what the weather would be for the next
day, i.e. which media types could provide information about the weather forecast.
answers are listed in a table (Table 1), which makes it obvious that very few
children did not know where to search for that type of information (merely
12.8%). This supports the view that children are aware of how to obtain information
and that they are fairly familiar with the media they can use in the process.
Their answers support the fact that children link the research process within
library literacy with different types of media literacy as specified in the
Ferguson model of information literacy (Ferguson, 2005:9).
It is important
to point out that the children’s answers do not merely refer to forms
of direct social interaction in communication (e.g. “I’ll ask Mom
or Dad”), but also to television news programs, radio news, the Internet
etc. as sources of that type of information.
have been summarized in a table (Table 1), containing data regarding the
awareness of various possibilities provided by media as sources of information.
Most of the children, whilst answering this question, stated television as
the medium providing the largest amount of information (nearly 80%).
Table 1: An overview of answers concerning potential sources of information,
as related to the question, “How can we find out what the weather will
Sources of information
Two or more media (e.g. TV, radio, newspapers,
One medium (most commonly TV)
Interpersonal communication (e.g. asking
I don’t know / No answer given
Estimating the level of media literacy development as compared to reading
as an element of basic literacy
as an element of basic literacy, has been estimated on the basis of the children’s
ability to recognize letters whilst reading and their ability to synthesize
letters/syllables into words. The results have shown that by preschool age,
most children will have already initiated the process of synthesizing individual
letters and syllables (64.1%). The remaining children (35.9%) could recognize
individual letters but could not yet synthesize them. Nonetheless, this enables
them to extract information from individual media serving as sources of information.
magazines and picture books fall into the category of media serving as sources
of information and affect the level of information literacy. An estimation
has been obtained from answers given by their parents of the time, per week,
spent by a child using these sources of information. It is notable that no
correlation has been established between basic literacy derived from the parents’ answers
to questions concerning whether the child could recognize letters and the length
of time spent by a child weekly browsing children’s magazines/picture
books (r<0.20, p>0.05). A possible explanation is that children are not
yet independent readers and will, therefore, use these media assisted by their
parents’ reading aloud.
On the basis
of the conducted research, the hypothesis has been corroborated that the level
of media literacy development in preschool children is related to their overall
information literacy development level. Additionally, the hypothesis that it
is possible to determine the interconnection between specific elements of technology
literacy, library literacy and basic literacy, in view of the level of media
literacy development within information literacy models, has also been corroborated.
is based upon research into the level of preschool children’s media literacy.
As it has been established that children spend a large part of their free time
(about 25 hours a week) using different types of media as sources of information,
a need has arisen for quality selection of materials suitable for children.
Additionally, contemporary media such as computers require additional appropriate
education of parents by experts.
has been compared to elements of the general level of information literacy
development. It has been established that preschool children can accurately
identify qualitative differences between different media as sources of information
and can recognize and accurately identify computer parts and the function
of the computer as a contemporary way to access information. This fact calls
for additional education of parents so they can assist their children in selecting
appropriate quality media content.
On the basis
of the children’s estimations, a correlation between media literacy and
technology literacy as elements of information literacy has been ascertained,
probably due to the frequent use of media. This is also as a consequence of
social interaction with other socialization agents (e.g. elder siblings, friends,
preschool teachers etc.)
has shown that preschool children not only show a tendency to use sources of
information indicative of technology literacy (access to information via the
computer) and media broadcast via television or radio (media literacy/broadcast),
but also to use print materials (children’s magazines, picture books).
Using all of these media is not linked to the level of basic literacy estimated
on the basis of the ability to recognize letters/read.
into the impact of media on children should avoid stereotypes such as viewing
media as presenting a hazard to children. Instead, it is preferable to view
media as promoters of social relations since they open new horizons, offer
the children new sources of insight in ways more interesting than their parents
can provide, stimulate ideas and provide discussion points, thereby enabling
children to become instructors and counsellors to other children. Naturally,
this does not imply that children should spend all their free time exposed
to media. Rather, it is desirable to pursue a combined approach to children’s
activities. Thus, the computer can become a medium stimulating the development
of self-esteem, creativity, communication skills, collaborative learning
research has been conducted on a highly sensitive age group – children
who are still developing intensely, the results of such research calls for
the necessity to carefully select quality educational content for the children
to encounter via media, together with the additional need to educate all
the agents involved in social interaction (parents, preschool teachers
and other professionals working in preschool education) and the involvement
of experts from other areas responsible for designing media content. With regard
to the educational context of preschool institutions, media and information
education is a part of the preschool curriculum (Ministarstvo prosvjete i športa,
1991). However, according to educators, certain features accompanying
modern technological trends are still missing. Thus, in the course of this
research, a number of recommendations provided by educators have been gathered
with regard to additional training models with a view to gaining insight into
appropriate ways of using contemporary media in preschool institutions.
Their suggestions primarily apply to training people to select quality content
and define the frequency of use / time of exposure to contemporary media, especially
the computer. So far, only a basic training of computer use has been provided.
example of best practice in this field is an educational foundation “Cable
in the Classroom” (Kubey et al, 2003: I), whose educational philosophy
identifies the key elements to which every student and teacher is entitled:
visionary and sensible use of media and technology, engagement with rich
content, membership in a meaningful community of learners, excellence in teaching
and the support of parents and other adults.
other than the need for organizing further training for preschool teachers,
these results should be supplemented by evaluations of the levels of social
and cognitive development of preschool children. An analysis of correlations
between these variables and the overall level of information literacy development
will be undertaken with a particular reference to media literacy.
1 Violeta Vidaček Hainš,
Ph.D., University of Zagreb, Faculty of Organization and Informatics,
Department of organization, Pavlinska 2, Varaždin, HR-42000, Croatia.
2 Valentina Kirinić,
Ph.D., University of Zagreb, Faculty of Organization and Informatics,
Department of information system development, Pavlinska 2, Varaždin,
HR-42000, Croatia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Ksenija Pletenac, Principal
and pedagogue – Kindergarden “Varaždin”, Dravska
1, Varaždin, HR-42000, Croatia. E-mail: email@example.com
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Violeta Vidaček Hainš
Odnos medijske pismenosti s ostalim elementima modela informacijske pismenosti
Sve veća izloženost djece predškolske dobi različitim
vrstama medija zahtijeva i sve višu razinu razvoja medijske pismenosti.
Medijska pismenost, uz bazičnu, tehnološku i knjižničarsku
pismenost, čini sastavni dio modela informacijske pismenosti.
U svrhu ispitivanja razvijenosti i međuodnosa različitih elemenata
unutar modela informacijske pismenosti, konstruirane su tri ankete namijenjene
odgojiteljicama u dječjem vrtiću, roditeljima i polaznicima dječjih
vrtića u dobi od 6 godina. Ove tri skupine ispitanika odabrane su kako
bi se ustanovile podudarnosti i preklapanja između njihovih procjena.
Dobiveni rezultati pokazuju da šestogodišnjaci učestalo
kod kuće i u vrtiću prate informacije putem različitih vrsta
medija, i to prosječno čak oko 25 sati tjedno. Tako su njihovi najčešći
izvori informacija TV, zatim video, slikovnice, računalo itd. Potvrđena
je i pozitivna povezanost između razine razvoja medijske i tehnološke
pismenosti kod djece predškolske dobi. Nadalje, većina djece predškolske
dobi pokazuje i početnu razvijenost knjižničarske pismenosti.
Tako i razina složenosti istraživačkog procesa kao sastavnog
dijela knjižničarske pismenosti ovisi o dostupnosti i izloženosti
različitim vrstama medija (TV, računala i dr.). U okviru procjene
razvoja bazične pismenosti dobiveni rezultat ukazuje na to da poznavanje
slova i vještina čitanja koji predstavljaju sastavne dijelove bazične
pismenosti nisu povezani s razinom razvijenosti informacijske pismenosti u
toj dobi. Rezultat dodatno ukazuje i na važnost socijalne komponente,
odnosno uloge odraslih koji djeci čitaju priče i ostale sadržaje.
Zaključno, zbog velike izloženosti djece različitim medijima
kod kuće i u predškolskim ustanovama, vrlo je važno
sustavno praćenje i rad na podizanju kvalitete obrazovnih sadržaja
obuhvaćenih programom predškolskog odgoja. Jednako je nužno potrebna
dodatna edukacija roditelja u obliku savjeta stručnjaka za kvalitetnu
selekciju sadržaja i ograničavanje vremena u kojem djeca kod kuće
usvajaju informacije i stječu informacijsku pismenost putem različitih
Ključne riječi: vrste medija, medijska pismenost, informacijska